Process Engineering Term - M

MARGINAL PROBABILITY OF HYDROCARBONS (MPHC) - The probability that oil and gas occur in commercial quantities, using existing recovery technology under current economic conditions.

MINIMUM ROYALTY - The lowest payment a lessee can pay on an OCS lease after production begins. It is equivalent to the yearly rental, typically $3 per acre or $8 per hectare. Rentals are paid annually before a discovery; royalties are paid on production after a discovery. If the total royalty payments amount to less than the yearly rental, the minimum royalty payments make up the difference.

MACARONI STRING - a string of tubing or pipe, usually 3/4 or 1 inch (1.9 or 2.54 centimeters) in diameter.

MAKE A CONNECTION - to attach a joint or stand of drill pipe onto the drill stem suspended in the wellbore to permit deepening the wellbore by the length of the pipe.

MAKE UP - 1. to assemble and join parts to form a complete unit (for example, to make up a string of drill pipe). 2. to screw together two threaded pieces. Compare break out. 3. to mix or prepare (for example, to make up a tank of mud). 4. to compensate for (for example, to make up for lost time).

MAKE UP A JOINT - to screw a length of pipe into another length of pipe.

MAKEUP CATHEAD - a device that is attached to the shaft of the drawworks and used as a power source for making up joints of pipe. It is usually located on the driller’s side of the drawworks. Also called spinning cathead.

MAKEUP TONGS - tongs used for screwing one length of pipe into another for making up a joint. Compare breakout tongs. See also tongs.

MALE CONNECTION - a pipe, coupling, or tool that has threads on the outside so that it can be joined to a female connection.

MANDREL - a cylindrical bar, spindle, or shaft around which other parts are arranged or attached or that fits inside a cylinder or tube.

MANIFOLD - 1. an accessory system of piping to a main piping system (or another conductor) that serves to divide a flow into several parts, to combine several flows into one, or to reroute a flow to any one of several possible destinations.

MAST - a portable derrick that is capable of being raised as a unit, as distinguished from a standard derrick, which cannot be raised to a working position as a unit. For transporting by land, the mast can be divided into two or more sections to avoid excessive length extending from truck beds on the highway.

MASTER BUSHING - a device that fits into the rotary table to accommodate the slips and drive the kelly bushing so that the rotating motion of the rotary table can be transmitted to the kelly.

MASTER VALVE - 1. a large valve located on the Christmas tree and used to control the flow of oil and gas from a well. Also called master gate.

MECHANICAL JAR - a percussion tool operated mechanically to give an upward thrust to a fish by the sudden release of a tripping device inside the tool. If the fish can be freed by an upward blow, the mechanical jar can be very effective.

MECHANICAL LOG - a log of, for instance, rate of penetration or amount of gas in the mud, obtained at the surface by mechanical means. See mud logging.

MECHANICAL RIG - a drilling rig in which the source of power is one or more internal-combustion engines and in which the power is distributed to rig components through mechanical devices (such as chains, sprockets, clutches, and shafts). Also called a power rig.

MILL - a downhole tool with rough, sharp, extremely hard cutting surfaces for removing metal, packers, cement, sand, or scale by grinding or cutting.

MISCIBLE DRIVE - method of enhanced recovery in which various hydrocarbon solvents or gases (such as propane, LPG, natural gas, carbon dioxide, or a mixture thereof) are injected into the reservoir to reduce interfacial forces between oil and water in the pore channels and thus displace oil from the reservoir rock. See chemical flooding, gas injection.

MIXING TANK - any tank or vessel used to mix components of a substance (as in the mixing of additives with drilling mud).

MIX MUD - to prepare drilling fluids.

MONITOR - an instrument that reports the performance of a control device or signals if unusual conditions appear in a system.

MONKEYBOARD - the derrickhand’s working platform. As pipe or tubing is run into or out of the hole, the derrickhand must handle the top end of the pipe, which may be as high as 90 feet (27 meters) or higher in the derrick or mast.

MORNING TOUR - a work shift that generally begins at or near midnight. See graveyard tour.

MOTORHAND - the crew member on a rotary drilling rig, who is responsible for the care and operation of drilling engines. Also called motorman.

MOTOR - any of various power units, such as a hydraulic, internal combustion, air, or electric device, that develops energy or imparts motion. Compare engine.

MOUSEHOLE - shallow bores under the rig floor, usually lined with pipe, in which joints of drill pipe are temporarily suspended for later connection to the drill string.

MOUSEHOLE CONNECTION - the procedure of adding a length of drill pipe or tubing to the active string.

MUD - the liquid circulated through the wellbore during rotary drilling and workover operations.

MUD ACID - a mixture of hydrochloric and/or hydrofluoric acids and surfactants used to remove wall cake from the wellbore.

MUD CAKE - the sheath of mud solids that forms on the wall of the hole when liquid from mud filters into the formation. Also called filter cake or wall cake.

MUD CENTRIFUGE - a device that uses centrifugal force to separate small solid components from liquid drilling fluid.

MUD CLEANER - a cone-shaped device, a hydrocyclone, designed to remove very fine solid particles from the drilling mud.

MUD ENGINEER - an employee of a drilling fluid supply company whose duty it is to test and maintain the drilling mud properties that are specified by the operator.

MUD GAS-SEPARATOR - a device that removes gas from the mud coming out of a well when a kick is being circulated out.

MUD HOSE - also called kelly hose or rotary hose. See rotary hose.

MUD LINE - a mud return line.

MUD LOGGING - the recording of information derived from examination and analysis of formation cuttings made by the bit and of mud circulated out of the hole. A portion of the mud is diverted through a gas-detecting device. Cuttings brought up by the mud are examined under ultraviolet light to detect the presence of oil or gas. Mud logging is often carried out in a portable laboratory set up at the well site.

MUD PIT - originally, an open pit dug in the ground to hold drilling fluid or waste materials discarded after the treatment of drilling mud. For some drilling operations, mud pits are used for suction to the mud pumps, settling of mud sediments, and storage of reserve mud. Steel tanks are much more commonly used for these purposes now, but they are still usually referred to as pits.

MUD PUMP - a large, high-pressure reciprocating pump used to circulate the mud on a drilling rig. A typical mud pump is a two or three-cylinder piston pump whose replaceable pistons travel in replaceable liners and are driven by a crankshaft actuated by an engine or a motor.

MUD RETURN LINE - a trough or pipe that is placed between the surface connections at the wellbore and the shale shaker.

MUD TANK - one of a series of open tanks, usually made of steel plate, through which the drilling mud is cycled to remove sand and fine sediments.

MUD WEIGHT - a measure of the density of a drilling fluid expressed as pounds per gallon, pounds per cubic foot, or kilograms per cubic metre. Mud weight is directly related to the amount of pressure the column of drilling mud exerts at the bottom of the hole.

MULTIPLE COMPLETION - an arrangement for producing a well in which one wellbore penetrates two or more petroleum-bearing formations. In one type, multiple tubing strings are suspended side by side in the production casing string, each a different length and each packed to prevent the commingling of different reservoir fluids. Each reservoir is then produced through its own tubing string. Alternatively, a small diameter production casing string may be provided for each reservoir, as in multiple miniaturized or multiple tubingless completions. See dual completion.


Process Engineering Term - L

LAND RIG - any drilling rig that is located on dry land.

LATCH - a device, usually with segmented threads, run with seal subs on the bottom of a tubing string and latched into a permanent packer to prevent tubing movement.

LAY - 1. the spiral of strands in a wire rope either to the right or to the left, as viewed from above. 2. a term used to measure wire rope, signifying the linear distance a wire strand covers in one complete rotation around the rope.

LAY DOWN PIPE - to pull drill pipe or tubing from the hole and place it in a horizontal position on a pipe rack. Compare set back.

LEAD-TONG HAND - the crew member who operates the lead tongs when drill pipe and drill collars are being handled. Also called lead-tong man.

LEAD TONGS - the pipe tongs suspended in the derrick or mast and operated by a chain or a wire rope connected to the makeup cathead or the breakout cathead.

LEASE - A legal document executed between a landowner, as lessor, and a company or individual (as lessee) that conveys the right to exploit the premises for minerals or other products for a specified period of time over a given area.

LIFTING - a threaded device placed in the end of tubulars, such as drill collars to aid in lifting; also called hoisting plug.

LIGHT ENDS - The more volatile products of petroleum refining, e.g., butane, propane, and gasoline.

LINER - 1. a string of pipe used to case open hole below existing casing. A liner extends from the setting depth up into another string of casing, usually overlapping about 100 feet (30.5 meters) above the lower end of the intermediate or the oil string. Liners are nearly always suspended from the upper string by a hanger device. 2. a relatively short length of pipe with holes or slots that is placed opposite a producing formation. Usually, such liners are wrapped with specially shaped wire that is designed to prevent the entry of loose sand into the well as it is produced. They are also often used with a gravel pack. 3. in jet perforation guns, a conically shaped metallic piece that is part of a shaped charge. It increases the efficiency of the charge by increasing the penetrating ability of the jet. 4. a replaceable tube that fits inside the cylinder of an engine or a pump.

LINER COMPLETION - a well completion in which a liner is used to obtain communication between the reservoir and the wellbore.

LINER HANGER - a slip device that attaches the liner to the casing. See liner.

LOCATION - the place where a well is drilled. Also called well site.

LOG - a systematic recording of data, such as a driller’s log, mud log, electrical well log, or radioactivity log. Many different logs are run in wells to discern various characteristics of downhole formation. v: to record data.

LOG A WELL - to run any of the various logs used to ascertain downhole information about a well.

LOGGING DEVICES - any of several electrical, acoustical, mechanical, or radioactivity devices that are used to measure and record certain characteristics or events that occur in a well that has been or is being drilled.

LONG STRING - 1. the last string of casing set in a well. 2. the string of casing that is set at the top of or through the producing zone, often called the oil string or production casing.

LOST CIRCULATION - the quantities of whole mud lost to a formation, usually in cavernous, pressured, or coarsely permeable beds. Evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole.

LOST PIPE - drill pipe, drill collars, tubing, or casing that has become separated in the hole from the part of the pipe reaching the surface, necessitating its removal before normal operations can proceed; for example, a fish.

LOST TIME INCIDENT - an incident in the workplace that results in an injury serious enough that causes the person injured to be unable to work for a day or more.

LUBRICATOR - a specially fabricated length of casing or tubing usually placed temporarily above a valve on top of the casinghead or tubing head. It is used to run swabbing or perforating tools into a producing well and provides a method for sealing off pressure and thus should be rated for highest anticipated pressure.


Process Engineering Term - J & K

Process Engineering Term - J

jar - a percussion tool operated manually or hydraulically to deliver a heavy upward or downward blow to fish stuck in the borehole. v: to apply a heavy blow to the drill stem by use of a jar or bumper sub.

jar accelerator - a hydraulic tool used in conjunction with a jar and made up on the fishing string above the jar to increase the power of the jarring force.

jerk line - a wire rope, one end of which is connected to the end of the tongs and the other end of which is attached to the cathead.

jet - 1. a hydraulic device operated by a centrifugal pump used to clean the mud pits, or tanks, and to mix mud components. 2. in a perforating gun using shaped charges, a highly penetrating, fast-moving stream of exploded particles that forms a hole in the casing, cement, and formation.

jet cutoff - a procedure for severing pipe stuck in a well by detonating special shaped-charge explosives similar to those used in jet perforating. The explosive is lowered into the pipe to the desired depth and detonated. The force of the explosion makes radiating horizontal cuts around the pipe, and the severed portion of the pipe is retrieved.

jet cutter - a fishing tool that uses shaped charges to sever casing, tubing, or drill pipe stuck in the hole. See jet cutoff. Compare chemical cutter.

jet gun - an assembly, including a carrier and shaped charges, that is used in jet perforating.

jet-perforate - to create holes through the casing with a shaped charge of high explosives instead of a gun that fires projectiles. The loaded charges are lowered into the hole to the desired depth. Once detonated, the charges emit short, penetrating jets of high-velocity gases that make holes in the casing and cement for some distance into the formation. Formation fluids then flow into the wellbore through these perforations. See bullet perforator, gun-perforate.

journal bearing - a machine part in which a rotating shaft (a journal) revolves or slides. Also called a plain bearing.

joint of pipe - a length of drill pipe or casing. Both come in various lengths.

junk - metal debris lost in a hole. Junk may be a lost bit, pieces of a bit, pieces of pipe, wrenches, or any relatively small object that impedes drilling or completion and must be fished out of the hole. v: to abandon (as a nonproductive well).

junk basket - a device made up on the bottom of the drill stem or on wireline to catch pieces of junk from the bottom of the hole. Circulating the mud or reeling in the wireline forces the junk into a barrel in the tool, where it is caught and held. When the basket is brought back to the surface, the junk is removed. Also called a junk sub or junk catcher.

junk mill - a mill used to grind up junk in the hole. See mill.

junk retriever - a special tool made up on the bottom of the drill stem to pick up junk from the bottom of the hole. Most junk retrievers are designed with ports that allow drilling fluid to exit the tool a short distance off the bottom. This flow of fluid creates an area of low pressure inside the tool so that the junk is lifted and caught in the retriever by the higher pressure outside the tool. See junk, junk basket.

Process Engineering Term - K

KELLY - the heavy square or hexagonal steel member suspended from the swivel through the rotary table and connected to the topmost joint of drill pipe to turn the drill stem as the rotary table turns.

KELLY BLUSHING - a device fitted to the rotary table through which the kelly passes and the means by which the torque of the rotary table is transmitted to the kelly and to the drill stem. Also called the drive bushing.

KELLY BYPASS - a system of valves and piping that allows drilling fluid to be circulated without the use of the kelly.

KELLY COCK - a valve installed at one or both ends of the kelly. When a high-pressure backflow occurs inside the drill stem, the valve is closed to keep pressure off the swivel and rotary hose.

KELLY DRIVER - a device that fits inside the head and inside of which the kelly fits. The kelly driver rotates with the kelly.

KELLY SAVER SUB - a heavy and relatively short length of pipe that fits in the drill stem between the kelly and the drill pipe. The threads of the drill pipe mate with those of the sub, minimizing wear on the kelly.

KELLY SPINNER - a pneumatically operated device mounted on top of the kelly that, when actuated, causes the kelly to turn or spin.

KEYSEAT - 1. an undergauge channel or groove cut in the side of the borehole and parallel to the axis of the hole. A keyseat results from the rotation of pipe on a sharp bend in the hole. 2. a groove cut parallel to the axis in a shaft or a pulley bore.

KICK - an entry of water, gas, oil, or other formation fluid into the wellbore during drilling. It occurs because the pressure exerted by the column of drilling fluid is not great enough to overcome the pressure exerted by the fluids in the formation drilled. If prompt action is not taken to control the kick, or kill the well, a blowout may occur.

KICK FLUIDS - oil, gas, water, or any combination that enters the borehole from a permeable formation.

KICK OFF - 1. to bring a well into production; used most often when gas is injected into a gas lift well to start production. 2. in workover operations, to swab a well to restore it to production. 3. to deviate a wellbore from the vertical, as in directional drilling.

KICK OFF POINT (KOP) - the depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started; used in directional drilling.

KILL - 1. in drilling, to control a kick by taking suitable preventive measures (for example, to shut in the well with the blowout preventers, circulate the kick out, and increase the weight of the drilling mud). 2. in production, to stop a well from producing oil and gas so that reconditioning of the well can proceed.


Process Engineering Term - H & I

Process Engineering Term - H

HANG RODS - to suspend sucker rods in a derrick or mast on rod hangers rather than to place them horizontally on a rack.

HARD HAT - a hard helmet worn by oilfield workers to minimize the danger of being injured by falling objects.

HEADACHE - (slang) the position in which the mast on a mobile rig is resting horizontally over the driver’s cab.

HOIST - 1. an arrangement of pulleys and wire rope used for lifting heavy objects; a winch or similar device. 2. the drawworks. v: to raise or lift.

HOISTING COMPONENTS - drawworks, drilling line, and traveling and crown blocks. Auxiliary hoisting components include catheads, catshaft, and air hoist.

HOISTING DRUM - the large, flanged spool in the drawworks on which the hoisting cable is wound. See drawworks.

HOISTING LINE - a wire rope used in hoisting operations.

HOOK - a large, hook-shaped device from which the elevator bails or the swivel is suspended. It turns on bearings in its supporting housing.

HOISTING SYSTEM - the system on the rig that performs all the lifting on the rig, primarily the lifting and lowering of drill pipe out of and into the hole. It is composed of drilling line, traveling block, crown block, and drawworks. See also hoisting components.

HOOK LOAD - the weight of the drill stem and associated components that are suspended from the hook.

HOPPER - a large funnel- or cone-shaped device into which dry components (such as powdered clay or cement) can be poured to later mix with water or other liquids. The dry component is educted through a nozzle at the bottom of the hopper.

HORSEHEAD - the generally horsehead-shaped steel piece at the front of the beam of a pumping unit to which the bridle is attached in sucker rod pumping.

HORSEPOWER - a unit of measure of work done by a machine.

HORIZONTAL DRILLING - deviation of the borehole from vertical so that the borehole penetrates a productive formation in a manner parallel to the formation.

HYDRAULLIC - 1. of or relating to water or other liquid in motion. 2. operated, moved, or effected by water or liquid.

HYDRAULIC FLUID - a liquid of low viscosity (such as light oil) that is used in systems actuated by liquid (such as the brake system in a car).

HYDRAULIC FORCE - force resulting from pressure on water or other hydraulic fluid.

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING - an operation in which a specially blended liquid is pumped down a well and into a formation under pressure high enough to cause the formation to crack open, forming passages through which oil can flow into the wellbore.

HYDRAULIC JAR - a type of mechanical jar in which a fluid moving through a small opening slows the piston stroke while the crew stretches the work string. After the hydraulic delay, a release mechanism in the jar trips to allow a mandrel to spring up and deliver a sharp blow. Compare mechanical jar.

HYDRAULIC PUMP - a method of pumping oil from wells by using a downhole pump without sucker rods. Subsurface hydraulic pumps consist of two reciprocating pumps coupled and placed in the well. One pump functions as an engine and drives the other pump (the production pump). The downhole engine is usually operated by clean crude oil under under pressure (power oil) that is drawn from a power-oil settling tank by a triplex plunger pump on the surface. If a single string of tubing is used, power oil is pumped down the tubing string to the pump, which is seated in the string, and a mixture of power oil and produced fluid is returned through the casing-tubing annulus. If two parallel strings are used, one supplies power oil to the pump while the other returns the exhaust and produced oil to the surface. A hydraulic pump may be used to pump several wells from a central source.

HYDROCARBONS - organic compounds of hydrogen and carbon whose densities, boiling points, and freezing points increase as their molecular weights increase. Although composed of only two elements, hydrocarbons exist in a variety of compounds, because of the strong affinity of the carbon atom for other atoms and for itself. The smallest molecules of hydrocarbons are gaseous; the largest are solids. Petroleum is a mixture of many different hydrocarbons.

HYDROGEN SULFIDE CRACKING - a type of corrosion that occurs when metals are exposed to hydrogen sulfide gas; it is characterized by minute cracks that form just under the metal’s surface.

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE - the force exerted by a body of fluid at rest. It increases directly with the density and the depth of the fluid and is expressed in many different units, including pounds per square inch or kilopascals.

Process Engineering Term - I

IDC (Intangible Drilling Costs) - All cost incurred in drilling a well other than equipment or leasehold. These expenses are 100% tax deductible even if the well is productive.

IP (Initial Production) - Production from a well is generally broken down into three categories: a. Flush or Initial b. Settled c. Stripper. It is important to realize that a well cannot maintain the flow rates it made during the first stages of its life.

IADC - International Association of Drilling Contractors.

impeller - a set of mounted blades used to impart motion to a fluid air or gas (such as, the rotor of a centrifugal pump).

impermeable - preventing the passage of fluid. A formation may be porous yet impermeable if there is an absence of connecting passages between the voids within it. See permeability.

impression block - a block with lead or another relatively soft material on its bottom. It is made up on drill pipe or tubing at the surface, run into a well, and set down on the object that has been lost in the well. The block is retrieved and the impression is examined. The impression is a mirror image of the top of the fish; it also indicates the fish’s position in the hole, for example, whether it is centered or off to one side. From this information, the correct fishing tool may be selected.

induction log - an electric well log in which the conductivity of the formation rather than the resistivity is measured. Because oil-bearing formations are less conductive of electricity than water-bearing formations, an induction survey, when compared with resistivity readings, can aid in determination of oil and water zones.

inflatable packer - a packer with an element that inflates by means of gas or liquid pumped from the surface through a line. It is deflated by means of slots that can be opened to allow the gas or liquid to flow out. They are used when a temporary packer is needed in a hole.

injection gas - 1. a high-pressure gas injected into a formation to maintain or restore reservoir pressure. 2. gas injected in gas-lift operations.

injection log - a survey used to determine the injection profile, that is, to assign specific volumes or percentages to each of the formations taking fluid in an injection well. The injection log is also used to check for casing or packer leaks, proper cement jobs, and fluid migration between zones.

injection water - water that is introduced into a reservoir to help drive hydrocarbons to a producing well.

injection well - a well through which fluids are injected into an underground stratum to increase reservoir pressure and to displace oil. Also called input well.

injector head - a control head for injecting coiled tubing into a well that seals off the tubing and makes a pressure tight connection.

inland barge rig - an off shore drilling structure consisting of a barge on which the drilling equipment is constructed. It is positioned on location, then the barge is sunk.

insert - 1. a cylindrical object, rounded, blunt, or chisel-shaped on one end and usually made of tungsten carbide, that is inserted in the cones of a bit, the cutters of a reamer, or the blades of a stabilizer to form the cutting element of the bit or the reamer or the wear surface of the stabilizer. Also called a compact.

insert pump - a sucker rod pump that is run into the well as a complete unit.

intake valve - 1. the mechanism on an engine through which air and sometimes fuel are admitted to the cylinder. 2. on a mud pump, the valve that opens to allow mud to be drawn into the pump by the pistons moving in the liners.

intermediate casing string - the string of casing set in a well after the surface casing but before production casing is set to keep the hole from caving and to seal off formations. In deep wells, one or more intermediate strings may be required.

internal cutter - a fishing tool containing metal-cutting knives that is lowered into the inside of a length of pipe stuck in the hole to cut the pipe. The severed portion of the pipe can then be returned to the surface. Compare external cutter.

International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) - an organization of drilling contractors, oil and gas companies, and service companies that sponsors or conducts research on education, accident prevention, drilling technology, and other matters of interest to its membership and their employees. Its official publication is The Drilling Contractor.


Boleh ke Menikah dengan perempuan yang hamil luar nikah??

Hari ni kecoh dengan berita kontroversi yang keluar dalam Harian Metro, pasal hukum menikahi perempuan yang mengandung disebabkan zina. Asal ceritanya berkenaan luahan hati seorang gadis yang seringkali menjadi mangsa dera bapa (tiri) nya. Rupa-rupanya bapa dia tu dijadikan 'pak sanggup' untuk menutup malu ibunya yang ketika itu mngandungkan dia hasil berzina. Ni adalah artikel tersebut:

'Tanggung’ dosa ibu

E-mel Artikel Cetak Artikel Tanda Artikel Besarkan Saiz Teks Kecilkan Saiz Teks Komen Artikel
ARISYA... dapat ‘ayah’ pendendam dan panas baran
ARISYA... dapat ‘ayah’ pendendam dan panas baran

KUALA LUMPUR: Badan berbirat akibat dibelasah dengan tali pinggang manakala penampar dan sepak terajang menjadi ‘makanan’ harian seorang gadis sejak kecil, gara-gara dendam tidak berkesudahan lelaki dipanggil bapa.

Seksaan diterima Arisya (bukan nama sebenar), 24, hanya disebabkan lelaki berkenaan tidak dapat menerima hakikat dia terpaksa menjadi ‘pak sanggup’ dengan mengahwini ibunya selepas wanita itu hamil sebelum bernikah.

Menurut Arisya, zaman kanak-kanaknya tidak seperti rakan sebaya lain yang sentiasa disaluti kasih sayang ibu bapa serta kegembiraan.

Katanya, kehidupannya penuh kedukaan kerana didera ‘bapanya’ tanpa belas kasihan setiap kali melakukan kesilapan, biarpun tidak sebesar mana.

Disebabkan sering menerima layanan buruk ‘bapa sendiri’, Arisya sering tertanya-tanya, apakah dosa dilakukannya sehingga diperlakukan sedemikian.

Menginjak usia remaja, dia pernah terdengar pertengkaran besar di antara orang tuanya. Bapanya mengungkit yang dia terpaksa menjadi ‘pak sanggup’ kerana ibunya mengandung benih orang lain.

Akibat dendam kesumat itu, bapanya sering menjadikan ibunya sebagai mangsa deraan apabila cuba menyebelahi Arisya.

“Sebenarnya, ayah seorang yang panas baran terhadap emak, saya mahupun adik-adik. Namun saya paling teruk dibelasah walaupun kerana ingin bergurau, bergaduh kecil atau bermanja dengan adik-adik, seolah-olah melakukan kesalahan sangat besar.

“Saya tak tahu mengapa ayah terlalu baran dengan saya. Penampar yang diberi bertahun-tahun membuatkan jiwa saya tertekan.

“Terakhir ketika saya berusia 14 tahun apabila dibelasah dengan tali pinggang hingga menangis seharian akibat menanggung kesakitan yang amat sangat. Kesan daripada situ, saya membuat keputusan lari daripada rumah tapi tidak tahu ke mana hendak dituju.

“Ketika itu, yang terfikir ialah melarikan diri ke balai polis lalu membuat laporan saya didera ayah kandung. Polis kemudian membuat tangkapan dan ayah ditahan kerana kesalahan mendera berdasarkan laporan kesihatan oleh pihak hospital,” katanya kepada Metro Ahad.

Bagaimanapun, kesan psikologi terhadap Arisya sangat teruk kerana terpaksa melalui dugaan yang bukan sedikit apabila dihantar ke rumah perlindungan kanak-kanak dan berpisah dengan keluarga.

“Ia pengalaman sukar yang terpaksa diharungi bagi remaja yang masih mentah seperti saya. Disebabkan laporan itu ayah dibuang kerja, menyebabkan kebenciannya terhadap saya makin meluap-luap.

“Namun, saya mungkin selamat kerana berada di rumah perlindungan kanak-kanak tapi terfikir juga, apa akan jadi dengan emak dan adik lain sepanjang ketiadaan saya,” kata anak sulung itu.

Apabila ditempatkan di rumah perlindungan bawah pengawasan Jabatan Kebajikan Masyarakat (JKM), kedudukan tempat itu jauh daripada ibu kota dan di situlah bermula episod baru dalam hidup Arisya.

Tup tap, keluar pulak pasal artikel hukum menikahi perempuan mengandung yang berzina seperti dibawah:

KUALA LUMPUR: Haram dan berdosa besar bagi lelaki yang mengetahui seorang wanita mengandungkan anak luar nikah jikalau menikahi wanita hamil itu.

Pernikahan cuma boleh dilangsungkan selepas wanita terbabit melahirkan anak, malah anak yang lahir tidak boleh dibin atau dibintikan lelaki yang menjadi pak sanggup kerana zuriat berkenaan bukan daripada benihnya.

Dalam Islam, anak yang lahir perlu dibinkan wanita itu sendiri manakala dalam hukum lebih longgar, ia dibolehkan berbin atau binti Abdullah (hamba Allah).

Pendakwah bebas yang juga Pengarah Urusan Telaga Biru, Dr Zahazan Mohamed, berkata anak berkenaan juga tidak boleh berkahwin dengan lelaki terbabit (pak sanggup) kerana lelaki itu menikahi ibunya.

“Gadis anak zina adalah mahram dengan bapa tiri tetapi bukan mahram dengan lelaki yang berzina dengan ibunya,” katanya.

Menurutnya, dalam budaya masyarakat Malaysia, jika seorang wanita hamil anak luar nikah, dia dan teman lelaki yang membuntingkannya dinasihatkan lekas kahwin bagi menutup aib serta menjaga maruah keluarga.

“Mengikut Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara (JPN), anak berusia enam bulan ke bawah ketika dalam kandungan, boleh dibinkan lelaki berkenaan. Ini hukum di sisi manusia bagi menyelamatkan maruah,” katanya.

Zahazan berkata, hukum di sisi Allah, seorang wanita penzina tidak layak berkahwin melainkan lelaki penzina (ayat 3 surah an-Nur) dan jika wanita itu ingin bertaubat, anak berkenaan dibolehkan berbin atau berbintikan nama wanita terbabit.

Artikel ni membuatkan laman sosial FB jadi havoc,tatkala ramai yang mempersoalkan hukum yang dinyatakan dalam artikel tu. Ada yang cakap harus, ada yang menyokong artikel ni,cakap haram,ada yang menyindir mereka yang mempersoalkan kesahihan artikel ni sebagai orang yang lebih pandai daripada alim ulama dan sebagainya.

Aku pun tak ketinggalan untuk menjadi keliru sekejap dengan statement diatas memandangkan aku pernah mendengar ulasan ustaz berkenaan perkara ni,dan jawapan yang diberi adalah harus. Setelah buat sedikit research,akhirnya aku menjumpai 1 artikel lain berkenaan jawapan lengkap kepada persoalan tersebut. Boleh baca lebih lanjut artikel berkenaan 'Hukum menikahi wanita hamil kerana berzina' disini.


Drinking water at this timings are most effective!!!

After wake up

Help to activate internal organs after long sleep

After taking bath

Helps to lower blood pressure

Half an hour before meals

will help our digestion system

Before sleep

Will help to avoid Stroke or Heart Attack at midnight


Khasiat 3 jenis ulam kegemaran harian

Ulam-ulaman sudah menjadi kemestian sesetengah orang utk melengkapkan menu dan menambahkan enak rasa makanan. Tambah enak lagi, ulam digandingkan dengan sambal belacan, budu, cencalok mahupun apa jua jenis sambal yang saling melengkapi. Kenali 3 jenis ulaman di bawah ni yang pastinya melengkapkan dan mevariasikan lagi menu harian anda.

1. Pegaga

Pegaga atau nama saintifiknya, "Centella Asiatica" mempunyai aroma unik dan rasa yang sedikit pahit. Ulam renek berdaun lebar ini digunakan secara tradisional untuk mengubati alergi, kanser, cirit-birit, merangsangkan peredaran darah, mengurangkan panas badan dan juga mengubati lelah/. Pegaga boleh dicicah bersama aneka sambal belacan dan boleh dijadikan jus.

2. Selom

"Oenanthe Javanica" atau selom merupakan sejenis ulam segar yg cukup digemari oleh orang utara tanah air, turut dijadikan sayuran hiasan dalam laksa. Ulam berdaun cantik ini dikatakan dapat mengubati demam panas serta tekanan darah tinggi. Malah selom juga mampu memberi kesan sebagai agen anti reumatik dan menurunkan paras gula dan kolestrol dalam pesakit diabetes atau kencing manis.

3. Ulam Raja

Ulam raja atau "Cosmos Caudatus" mempunyai rasa dan bau yang unik. Kajian sains membuktikan ulam raja mengandungi 3% protein, 0.4% lemak dan karbohidrat. Ia juga kaya dengan kalsium dan vitamin A yang menguatkan tulang serta agen pembersih darah. Ulam raja cukup enak dimakan mentah yg dicicahkan bersama aneka sambal belacan, budu dan sebagainya.


Dulu VeryDemotivational...Sikalang....!!! 9gag~

1st time diperkenalkan oleh Sidi-san pada taun 2008,verydemotivational merupakan salah satu website humour yang memanipulasikan pics motivational kepada demotivational..contohnya:-

namun aura humour verydemotivational tak bertahan lama,menyebabkan aku stop surf kejap website ni selama setahun (start awal 2011 kot). Sekarang ada 1 website humour baru yang agak meledak,sampaikan member-member di FB pon banyak terpengaruh. 9gag rulez this era~



Islamic Calendar



My photo
Kedah, Malaysia
I'm a man. What else??
Powered by Blogger.